Ansible is a configuration management system. It can configure systems, deploy software, and orchestrate more advanced IT tasks such as continuous deployments or zero downtime rolling updates. This is handy if you need to deploy your application on multiple servers without the need for having to do this manually on all your servers. You can also add identical servers to your cluster.
Ansible provides configuration management so you can add identical servers to your cluster very easily. You can also do centralized management for all of your servers in one place. You can run an apt-get update on all servers at once!
Ansible does deployment and management over SSH. It manages machines in an agent-less manner. Because OpenSSH is one of the most peer-reviewed open source components, security exposure is greatly reduced. Ansible is decentralized–it relies on your existing OS credentials to control access to remote machines.
In this tutorial we’ll see how we can install Ansible on Ubuntu 14.04.
Step 1: Installing Ansible
To install the latest version of Ansible
$ sudo apt-get install software-properties-common
$ sudo apt-add-repository ppa:ansible/ansible
$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get install ansible
You need to put all the servers that you want to manage with Ansible in the /etc/ansible/hosts file.
You will need to comment out all lines. Go to the latest line of the hosts file to create a category. Say you have a cluster of web and database servers. You could create two separate categories: web and db. If you would want to make a change on all database servers, you could use db as selection so only all database servers would be affected and not other servers such as your web servers in the web category.
Step 2: Setting up SSH keys
As we mentioned above, Ansible primarily communicates with client computers through SSH. While it certainly has the ability to handle password-based SSH authentication, SSH keys help keep things simple.
We can set up SSH keys in two different ways depending on whether you already have a key you want to use.
Create a New SSH Key Pair
If you do not already have an SSH key pair that you would like to use for Ansible administration, we can create one now on your Ansible VPS.
We will create an SSH key pair to authenticate with the hosts that it will administer.
As the user you will be controlling Ansible with, create an RSA key-pair by typing:
You will be asked to specify the file location of the created key pair, a passphrase, and the passphrase confirmation. Press ENTER through all of these to accept the default values.
Your new keys are available in your user’s ~/.ssh directory. The public key (the one you can share) is called id_rsa.pub. The private key (the one that you keep secure) is called id_rsa. You can copy the content of this file to the authorized_keys in the target servers to set up SSH communication.
Step 3: Test Ansible
To see if you can ping all your servers in the hosts file, you can use the following command:
$ ansible all –m ping
This confirms whether or not your servers are online.